Irvine, Loudon. Death in Childbirth, An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950. Oxford.: Clarendon Press, 1992.

John, Norman. Childbirth/ Collected from the Works of the Celebrated, William Smellie. M.D. Boston, 1786, plates 23 and 24.

K. Codell Carter and Barbara R. Carter. Childbed Fever, A Scientific Biography of Ignaz Semmelweis. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Laurel, Ulrich. A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812. New York: Knopf, 1990.

Maureen, Hickman. An Introduction to Midwifery. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978.

A Midwife’s Tale

The Encyclopedia of New Zealand linkKerryn Pollock. ‘Pregnancy, birth and baby care – Pregnancy attitudes, rituals and clothing’, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 15-Nov-12

Russian Family Grandmother’s Choice

Letters from Pheobe Gregg and Frances Milne A Lifetime – Day by Day: Five Women and Their Diaries -Mothers …

Pioneer Cemeteries and Their Stories Madison County, Indiana Howard Cemitary

Forceps in Childbirth

Entry from Physician’s Record Book, 1816-1824, Ms 85583. Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, CT

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